Ge Bai

Ge Bai, PhD, CPA

Associate Professor of Practice
Areas of Interest
Health care pricing, Health care cost management, Pharmaceutical supply chain

Ge Bai, PhD, CPA is an associate professor of Accounting at Johns Hopkins Carey Business School and associate professor of Health Policy & Management (joint) at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She is an expert on health care pricing, policy, and management. Dr. Bai has written for the Wall Street Journal and published her studies in leading academic journals such as the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, JAMA Internal Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, Health Affairs, American Journal of Public Health, Circulation, Medical Care Research & Review, Decision Sciences, Accounting Horizons, and Journal of Business Ethics. Her work has been widely featured in ABC, Atlantic, CBS, CNN, Forbes, Fox News, Los Angeles Times, NBC, New York Times, NPR, The Guardian, U.S. News & World Report, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, and other media and used in government regulations and congressional testimony. 


  • Ph. D, Accounting, Michigan State University
  • MS, Accounting, Eastern Michigan University
  • BA, Japanese Literature, Dalian University of Technology
  • BA, Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology


Selected publications
  • Financial Eligibility Criteria and Medication Coverage for Independent Charity Patient Assistance Programs, with SoYeon Kang, Aditi Sen, and Gerard Anderson, 2019, JAMA, 322(5), 422-429.
  • Air ambulance with sky high charges, with Arjun Chanmugam, Valerie Suslow, and Gerard Anderson, 2019, Health Affairs, 38(7), 1195-1200.
  • Favorable Formulary Placement of Branded Drugs in Medicare Prescription Drug Plans When Generics Are Available, with Mariana Social and Gerard Anderson, 2019, JAMA Internal Medicine, 179(6), 832-833.
  • Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants in Emergency Medical Services Who Billed Independently, 2012-2016, with Gabor Kelen, Kevin Frick, and Gerard Anderson, 2019, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 37(5), 928-932.
  • Pharmaceutical industry funding to patient-advocacy organization: a cross-national comparison of disclosure codes and regulation. With Laura Karas, So Yeon Kang, Robin Feldman, and Gerard Anderson, 2019, Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 42(2), 453-484.
  • Consumer Responses to Price Disclosure in Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising, with Jace Garrett, William Tayler, Mariana Social, Antonio Trujillo, and Gerard Anderson, 2019, JAMA Internal Medicine, 179(3), 435-437.
  • Evaluation of Causes of Protected Health Information Breaches, with Jiang John, 2019, JAMA Internal Medicine, 179(2), 265-267.
  • Pharmaceutical Companies Support of US Patient-Advocacy Organizations: An International Context, with So Yeon Kang, Laura Karas, and Gerard Anderson, 2019, American Journal of Public Health, 109(4), 559-561.
  • Market Power: Price Variation among Commercial Insurers for Hospital Services, with Gerard Anderson, Health Affairs, 2018, 37(10), 1615-1622.
  • Access to Antihypertensive Drugs in China, with Catherine Bennet, Jiguang Wang, and Gerard Anderson, Circulation, 2018, 138(17), 1777-1779.
  • Increasing Frequency and Share of Dermatologic Procedures Billed by Non-Physician Clinicians from 2012-2016, with Andrew Rogers, Manisha Loss, and Gerard Anderson, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2018, 79(6), 1159-1161.
  • The Graduate Nurse Education Demonstration: Implications for Medicare Policy, with Linda Aiken, Joshua Dahlerbruch, and Barbara Todd, The New England Journal of Medicine, 2018, 378(25), 2360-2363.
  • Addressing Generic-Drug Market Failures—the Case for Establishing a Nonprofit Manufacturer, with Dan Liljenquist and Gerard Anderson, The New England Journal of Medicine, 2018, 378(20), 1857-1859.
  • Pharmacy Benefit Managers, Brand-Name Drug Prices, and Patient Cost Sharing, with Aditi Sen and Gerard Anderson, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2018, 168(6), 436-437.  
  • Variation in Emergency Department vs Internal Medicine Excess Charges in the United States, with Tim Xu, Angela Park, Sarah, Joo, Susan Hutfless, Ambar Mehta, Gerard Anderson, and Martin Makary, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2017, 177(8), 1139-1145.
  • Higher Hospital Spending on Occupational Therapy Is Associated with Lower Readmission Rates, with Andrew Rogers, Robert Lavin, and Gerard Anderson, Medical Care Research and Review, 2017, 74(6), 668-686.
  • Hospitals Risks of Data Breaches, with John Jiang and Renee Flasher, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2017, 177(6), 878-880.
  • Variation in the Ratio of Physician Charges to Medicare Payments by Specialty and Region, with Gerard Anderson, JAMA, 2017, 317(2), 315-318.
  • US Hospital Are Still Using Chargemaster Markups to Maximize Revenues, with Gerard Anderson, Health Affairs, 2016, 35(9), 1658-1664.
  • A More Detailed Understanding of Factors Associated with Hospital Profitability, with Gerard Anderson, Health Affairs, 2016, 35(5), 889-897.
  • Measuring the Cost of Disruptions in Multistage Manufacturing Systems, with Takehisa Kajiwara and Jianbo Liu, Journal of Management Accounting Research, 2016, 28(1), 1-26.
  • Applying Variance Analysis to Understand California Hospitals' Expense Recovery Status by Patient Groups, Accounting Horizons, 2016, 30(2), 211-213.
  • The Cost of Manufacturing Disruptions, with Takehisa Kajiwara and Jianbo Liu, Strategic Finance, 2015, 97(6), 40-45.
  • Extreme Markup: The Fifty Hospitals with the Highest Charge-To-Cost Ratios, with Gerard Anderson, Health Affairs, 2015, 34(6), 922-928.
  • California's Hospital Fair Pricing Act Reduced the Prices Actually Paid by Uninsured Patients, Health Affairs, 2015, 34(1), 64-70.
  • Do Hospitals without Physicians on the Board Deliver Lower Quality of Care? with Ranjani Krishnan, American Journal of Medical Quality, 2015, 30(1), 58-65.
  • Accounting Performance and Capacity Investment Decisions: Evidence from California Hospitals, with Ranjani Krishnan and Sylvia Hsu, Decision Sciences, 2014, 45(2), 309-339.
  • How Do Board Size and Occupational Background of Directors Influence Social Performance in For-profit and Non-profit Organizations? Evidence from California Hospitals, Journal of Business Ethics, 2013, 118(1), 171-187.
  • The Role of Performance Measure Noise in Mediating the Relation between Task Complexity and Outsourcing, with Freddy Coronado and Ranjani Krishnan. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 2010, 22(1), 75-102.


  • Accounting Foundations
  • Capital Budgeting
  • Advanced Financial Accounting
  • Financial Accounting and Reporting

Honors and distinctions

  • The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School Supplemental Research Support Award, 2019
  • The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School Dean’s Award, 2017-2020
  • The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School Black & Decker Research Fund, 2017
  • Institute of Management Accountants Research Foundation Emerging Scholar Award, 2014
  • Journal of Management Accounting Research Best Paper Award, 2014
  • Institute of Management Accountants Research Foundation Grant, 2013
  • American Accounting Association/Grant Thornton Doctoral Dissertation Award, 2011